Tetrahydrocannabinol ( /ˌtɛtrəˌhaɪdrɵkəˈnæbɨnɒl/ tet-rə-hy-drə-kə-nab-i-nol; THC), also known as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), is the principal psychoactive constituent of the cannabis plant. First isolated in 1964, in its pure form, it is a glassy solid when cold, and becomes viscous and sticky if warmed. Like most pharmacologically active secondary metabolites of plants, THC in cannabis is assumed to be involved in self-defense, THC has mild to moderate analgesic effects, and cannabis can be used to treat pain by altering transmitter release on dorsal root ganglion of the spinal cord and in the
Cannabidiol (CBD) is a cannabinoid found in cannabis. It is a major constituent of the plant, representing up to 40% in its extracts.
It has displayed sedative effects in animal tests. Some research, however, indicates that CBD can increase alertness. It may decrease the rate of THC clearance from the body, perhaps by interfering with the metabolism of THC in the liver.
Medically, it has been shown to relieve convulsion, inflammation, anxiety, and nausea, as well as inhibit cancer cell growth. Recent studies have shown cannabidiol to be as effective as atypical antipsychotics in treating schizophrenia. Studies have also shown that it may relieve symptoms of dystonia.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a psychoactive substance cannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa and Cannabis indica/afghanica. It is also a metabolite of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). CBN acts as a weak agonist of the CB1 and CB2 receptors, with lower affinity in comparison to THC.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV, THV) is a homologue of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) having a propyl (3-carbon) side chain. This terpeno-phenolic compound is found naturally in Cannabis, sometimes in significant amounts. The psychoactive effects of THCV in Cannabis preparations are not well characterized. THCV has been shown to be a CB1 receptor antagonist, i.e. it blocks the effects of THC.